V. T. TROSHCHENKO etal. fracture toughnesses, a yield stress at a strain rate of 10-4 and 103 s-1 was applied to Equation (3) [6]. The purpose of the work is to determine the critical stress intensity factor K1C, according to ASTM E399 named as plane strain fracture toughness. Download. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. If values of K Ic or another method for de-termining K Icis given in Part KM for the specific material to be used, these values should be used. ... calculations in Article KD-4 is the plane-strain fracture toughness K Ic. Therefore, the ‘valid’ K IC determined according to the ASTM standard is a subset of K C material failure curve. ASTM E399 ‘Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness KIc of Metallic Materials’. (1), by replacing the static load (P) with dynamic load (P(t)) [14,15]. from literature) to the yield strength of the material, and using this to calculate the minimum specimen dimensions. The fracture toughness experiment must be set up so that the plane strain condition is satisfied. σcritical ≈ ((2Eγ)/(πa))1/2. NOT plane strain conditions); calculating K under-estimates the material’s fracture toughness since it does not include any allowance for plasticity. A widely utilized standardized test method is the Charpy impact test whereby a sample with a V-notch or a U-notch is subjected to impact from behind the notch. Fracture toughness samples were prepared with various dimensions, limited by the lab-scale size of the water-cooled copper boat used to produce them. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. σactual = 2σ(a/r)(1/2) The approximate value of the actual stress at the tip of a crack can be determined from the applied stress with the equation _____. plane strain fracture toughness KIC and KId was measured. K Ic is the plane strain fracture toughness (critical stress intensity). K Ic is defined as the plane strain fracture toughness. KQ can be called a valid value of KIc if the specimen dimensions satisfy the above check. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Over a small range of crack lengths from ao to a, the relation of displacement to load and crack length … https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-449704-7.50007-8. If Kc is known the following can be derived from the equation: The crack length, a, that will result in fast fracture for a given applied stress. Also widely used are crack displacement tests such as three-point beam bending tests with thin cracks preset into test specimens before applying load. TWI can perform fracture toughness testing, including KIc testing. A plane strain compact specimen test is carried out with the specimen in the figure. methods measure critical stress intensity in plane strain, K IC, and the energy absorbed in impact (Charpy Test). There is no advance assurance that a valid KIc value will be determined from a particular test. For the case of a ductile material such as a metal, this toughness is typically proportional to the fracture stress and strain as well as the gauge length of the crack. Vm is measured. Increase, Decrease Or Remain Constant . A fracture toughness value of Kc = 55 MPa. or. The general concept of the K Ic plane strain fracture toughness, due to G. R. Irwin, is reviewed, and the current (tentative) standard procedure for determination of K Ic with crack-notched bend specimens is â¦ FAQ: What is the relationship between the fracture toughness parameters K, CTOD and J? Clearly the actual stress normal to the crack plane a Ï yy is higher than that given by equation (2.25a). Equation (3) and the fracture path according to Equation (3) ... Intersection of the ASTM plane strain fracture toughness window with the material failure curve (as obtained in Figures 1 and 2) determines the ASTM fracture toughness K IC. KIc is not a suitable fracture parameter for high toughness or high tearing resistance materials where failure involves appreciable amounts of plastic deformation and behaviour moves into the realm of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (i.e. Copyright Â© 2021 TWI Ltd. All rights reserved. Near the border of a specimen the problem state is plane-stress (P-$\sigma$), while it is plane-strain (P-$\varepsilon$) near the center, where the triaxiality is higher. Fracture toughness describes the ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture. ISO. Create a free account to download. 3.4 Effects of Finite Boundaries The expression for the stress distribution ahead of a sharp crack [Eq. Expert Answer 80% (15 ratings) Previous … Meanwhile, the model developed by Ståhle [9], even though corresponding to homogeneous elastic body, is well suited for our material in study. This means that the SIF … However, the required specimen dimensions increase in proportion to the square of the ratio of KIc to yield strength, and impractically large specimens may be required for tough, low-strength materials. A size-independent fracture parameter for ductile materials would be the value of J at a 0.2mm tearing offset to the blunting line, determined from the tearing resistance curve. Above this plane-strain thickness, the fracture toughness is a constant value known as the plane-strain fracture toughness. This problem has been solved! The general concept of the KIc plane strain fracture toughness, due to G. R. Irwin, is reviewed, and the current (tentative) standard procedure for determination of KIc with crack-notched bend specimens is discussed in detail. The traditional approach to the design and analysis of a part is to use strength-of-materials concepts. Free PDF. National Structural Integrity Research Centre, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK. ScienceDirect Â® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect Â® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ASTM Designation E-399, Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of â¦ Plane Strain Fracture Toughness MPa m K IC Measurements Thickness of the Specimen mm B Width of the Specimen mm W Crack Length mm a Applied Force kN P Q Step 2. Another uses the ratio of yield strength to Young’s modulus and a look up table approach. Because the Poisson contraction in a thin specimen relieves some of the stress, the fracture toughness of such a sample is relatively high. Download Free PDF. This paper. indicate that a different equation for f(R K) is more appro-priate, that equation may be used. E. V. Dontsov, An approximate solution for a plane strain hydraulic fracture that accounts for fracture toughness, fluid viscosity, and leak-off, International Journal of Fracture, 10.1007/s10704-017-0192-4, 205, 2, (221-237), (2017). This means that a valid KIC can be determined from specimens a few mm thick in materials like titanium alloys, but specimens may need to be hundreds of mm thick for valid KIC to be determined for structural steels. Picture V.1: 3D crack propagation. American Society for Testing and Materials. PDF. A … The resistance curve or the single-valued fracture toughness is obtained based on the mechanism and stability of fracture. Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness and Strain Energy Release Rate of Plastic Materials 1 This standard is issued under the Þxed designation D 5045; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. FAQ: What is meant by single-point measurement of fracture toughness? Chapter 6a – Plane Stress/Strain Equations Learning Objectives • To review basic concepts of plane stress and plane strain. increase, decrease or remain constant . The plane strain toughness in a metal is given by: {\displaystyle G_ {\mathrm {I} C}=B\sigma _ {yf}\epsilon _ {fr}\rho } • To demonstrate how to determine the stiffness matrix and stresses for a constant strain element. Resistance curves are plots where fracture toughness parameters (K, J etc.) Once the thickness exceeds the critical dimension, the value of K I becomes relatively constant and this value, K IC, is a true material property which is called the plane-strain fracture toughness. Fracture Modes. ISO 12135:2002 ‘Metallic materials -- Unified method of test for the determination of quasistatic fracture toughness’. The plane strain fracture toughness values presented in this compilation are expressed in terms of linear elastic fracture mechanics. See the answer. In this case, the stresses due to applied loading are calculated. b) What is the maximum value of fracture toughness that can be estimated with this specimen? Abhishek Yadav. \end{cases}\label{eq:GCKC}\end{equation} Plane strain condition and toughness. Stress Intensity Factor •All stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip can be divided into three basic types, each associated with a local mode of crack surface displacement. The specimen used is chevron notchedCompact Tension specimen (CT-specimen) to create a fatigue crack by cycling the sample to minimum and maximum loads. The diameter of the wire is ∼ 170 μm. Identifying all Sources of Uncertainty in the Test In Step 2 the user must identify all possible sources of uncertainty that may have an effect (either directly or indirectly) on the test. This will depend on the specimen’s initial crack length, thickness, and ligament size, as well as the yield strength of the material being tested. Such tests result in either a single-valued measure of fracture toughness or in a resistance curve. Increase, Decrease Or Remain Constant . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. There are three ways of applying a force that enable the crack to propagate: mode I, the opening crack; mode II, the sliding crack; and mode III, the tearing crack. The term KIc is known as the plane strain fracture toughness and does not depend upon the thickness of the sample. Publ: EMAS Publishing, Warrington. low toughness conditions when there is little to no plastic deformation occurring at the crack tip). For test specimens which are not sufficiently large or brittle to exhibit predominantly linear elastic behaviour, it is possible to calculate a value of K using the same approach, but the result will be reported as KQ or Kmat as the material’s toughness, instead of a valid KIc. A KQ value is determined from the test results and put into the following equation: Where a is initial crack length, B is specimen thickness, W-a is specimen ligament and σYS is the yield strength of the material. If values of K Ic or another â¦ Kc is referred to as the fracture toughness of the material. Because no ASTM Because no ASTM standard provides a value of a for plane stress J testing, the work of Emst, et al. These KIC values have been obtained by the ASTM' E399-72 "Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness â¦ calculations in Article KD-4 is the plane-strain fracture toughness K Ic. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness 1. PDF. Experimental data for high-strength steels, titanium, and aluminum alloys validate the standard procedure for determination of KIc, and confirm that it is reasonable to regard KIc as an inherent material property which controls fracture under conditions of sufficiently high constraint. PDF. The applied stress, σ, that will result in fast fracture for a given crack length. See the answer. FAQ: When and why are fracture toughness tests necessary? For more information see our fracture toughness testing page or contact us. how would the plane strian fracture toughness of â¦ The assumptions of plane strain â¦ Introduction to Fracture Mechanics David Roylance Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 This problem has been solved! Provides a basic understanding of a material's resistance to fracturing. The following standards can be used to measure fracture toughness of metals: ASTM E399 Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness K IC of metallic materials.. ISO 12737 Metallic materials—determination of plane-strain fracture toughness. British Standards Institution. This is essentially what happens in tests of many actual materials. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness 1. Download Full PDF Package. It is a measure of the resistance of a material to crack extension under predominantly linear-elastic conditions (i.e. One is based on calculating the ratio of an estimated value of KIc (e.g. The standard test procedure for bend specimens can be adapted to other types of specimens with the aid of information given in an appendix. K= Kc. A test specimen must be chosen with large enough dimensions to give predominantly plane strain conditions at the crack tip. a) Is the value Kc = 55 MPa Vm is a valid value for Kic? sample thickness this asymptote, termed the plane strain fracture toughness KIc, is considered a material property. Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations Plane Strain Plane strain is defined to be a state of strain in which the strain normal to the x-y plane zand the shear strains xz and yz are assumed to be zero. The plane strain fracture toughness, K Ic is independent on specimen geometry and metallurgical factors. PLANE STRAIN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS 51 somewhat erratically, but increasingly rapidly, as the load increases up to a maximum PM where the specimen breaks apart. Copyright Â© 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Copyright Â© 1969 ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. The standard procedure constitutes an operational definition of KIc which is somewhat arbitrary, but no more so than is the definition of offset yield strength. It is generally thought of as the lower limiting value of fracture toughness in the environment and at the speed and temperature of the test, and can be considered as a size-independent fracture parameter for brittle materials (although this is a matter of current debate). In these instances a critical value of CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) or J should be determined, even if the value of J is subsequently converted into the units of K and reported as a KJ for comparison. ISBN 0-9552994-6-2. is the fracture strength, Ï is the operating stress in the material, and Ï yield is the yield stress of the material. Failure is determined to occur once the applied stress exceeds the material's strength (either yield strength or ultimate strength, depending on the criteria for failure). For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in Checks to determine whether a valid KIc value has been achieved can only be performed after the test. For a linear-elastic material, the displacement is proportional to the load when the crack length is fixed. In other words, to calculate the dynamic fracture toughness, re-searchers usually use the plane strain quasi-static fracture mechanics equation, Eq. Question: How Would The Plane Strian Fracture Toughness Of A Metal Be Expected To Change With Rising Temperarure ? And with the application of experimental-numerical method, tri-dimensional model has been established by FEM software Ansys/LS-DYNA, to operate transient analysis, and the response curves of stress intensity factor-time can be achieved through opening displacement of fracture. Wallin K, 2011: ‘Fracture Toughness of Engineering Materials – Estimation and Application’. Engineering Fracture Mechanics by Prof. K. Ramesh, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras. KIc is not a suitable fracture parameter for high toughness or high tearing resistance materials where failure involves appreciable amounts of plastic deformation and behavior moves into the realm of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (i.e. It is a measure of the resistance of a material to crack extension under predominantly linear-elastic conditions (i.e. are plotted against parameters characterizing the propagation of crack. Download PDF Package. An initial notch was made in the middle of one side of the specimen using a wire saw. There are several types of test used to measure fracture toughness of materials, which generally utilise a notched specimen in one of various configurations. BS 7448-1 ‘Fracture mechanics toughness tests – Part 1: Method for determination of KIc, critical CTOD and critical J values of metallic materials’. A, B and Î± are constants â¦ Fracture toughness tests are performed to quantify the resistance of a material to failure by cracking. Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) Equation Critical Fracture Toughness Property. NOT plane strain conditions); calculating K under-estimates the material’s fracture toughness since it does not include any allowance for plasticity. \begin{equation}\begin{cases} G & =& \frac{K_I^2}{E'} \\ K_{IC}& =& \sqrt{E'G_C}. In this form, the technique can be used to estimate the fracture toughness of materials only if the time of fracture The relationship between stress intensity, K I , and fracture toughness, K IC , is similar to the relationship between stress and tensile stress. Testing standards that include a procedure for KIc testing (e.g. Premium PDF Package . Fracture toughness is a critical mechanical property for engineering applications. • To derive the constant-strain triangle (CST) element stiffness matrix and equations. G = K2(- v2) /E in plane strain (6) Critical values of G (i.e., the fracture toughness) are then related to critical values of K, and these values of K are usually quoted for a naterial's fracture toughness. Fracture toughness is the ability of a material containing cracks to resist fracture. Question: How Would The Plane Strian Fracture Toughness Of A Metal Be Expected To Change With Rising Temperarure ? low toughness conditions when there is little to no plastic deformation occurring at the crack tip). classification+quantification of the fracture surfaces, is useful as a microstructural diagnostic for toughness, in addition to the quantitative measures of mechanical behavior. Download with Google Download with Facebook. Subscribe to our newsletter to receive the latest news and events from TWI: KIc is defined as the plane strain fracture toughness. A specimen containing a mode I crack with length 2a is considered (see figure 1). Hence the singular solution is valid only near the crack tip; we define this as the singularity dominated â¦ This is because the plane strain will result in a lower maximum possible shear stress in the case of positive â¦ It is generally thought of as the lower limiting value of fracture toughness in the environment and at the speed and temperature of the test, and can … Material data are as follows: Oys = 662 MPa, and the specimen thickness is 12.7 mm. MECH3300 Fracture Module 5 - Irwin-Kies 2 MECH3300 - Fracture Mechanics - Module 5 - Irwin-Kies equation, dC/da 7 Overview of Concepts 6) Irwin-Kies equation is an alternative fracture mechanics equation Fracture parameter is energy release rate G Fracture toughness R is critical value of G for fracture â¦ Fracture toughness decreases as material thickness increases until the part is thick enough to be in a plane-strain condition. Thicknesses between those that result in plane strain or plane stress are termed mixed, with plane strain occurring in the interior and plane stress some significant distance from the surface. BS 7448-1, ISO 12135, ASTM E399) give two methods that can be used to estimate a suitable specimen size. Plane strain fracture toughness measurement techniques making use of the principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics have been developed over about the last two decades. Plane-strain fracture toughness for cyclic loading Plane-strain fracture toughness for dynamic loading Specimen length Crack length along the surface of a cylindrical specimen Bending moment 247 . how would the plane strian fracture toughness of a metal be expected to change with rising temperarure ? [14] was used. •Fractography, i.e. T/F. 3.1.2 plane-strain fracture toughness—the crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip plane strain. PDF. Limited by the ASTM plane strain fracture toughness equation is a valid KIc value has been achieved can only be after... Critical stress intensity Factor ( SIF ) Equation critical fracture toughness, in addition to the of! Are plots where fracture toughness in the middle of one side of the toughness. By continuing you agree to the ASTM ' E399-72 `` standard Method test... Particular test mechanism and stability of fracture Objectives • to demonstrate how to determine the matrix... Resistance of a Metal be Expected to Change with Rising Temperarure bending tests with thin cracks into! Either a single-valued measure of fracture ), by replacing the static load ( P ( t ) ).! Failure by cracking toughness tests are performed to quantify the resistance of a Metal be Expected to Change Rising! How Would the plane strain condition is satisfied strength-of-materials concepts toughness KIc, is useful as a diagnostic. Predominantly plane strain fracture toughness tests are performed to quantify the resistance curve or the single-valued fracture toughness analysis a. Initial notch was made in the figure a test specimen must be set up so that the strain. Deformation occurring at the crack tip ) estimated with this specimen upon the thickness of the sample property... Twi can perform fracture toughness tests are performed to quantify the resistance of a to. Is fixed fracture toughness—the crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip plane strain conditions at the crack ). Determination of quasistatic fracture toughness is no advance assurance that a valid KIc has. To applied loading are calculated the single-valued fracture toughness testing page or contact us K Ic independent. – Estimation and Application ’ it does not include any allowance for plasticity how Would the strain... Energy absorbed in impact ( Charpy test ) Mechanics by Prof. K. Ramesh, Department of applied Mechanics IIT. In an appendix were prepared with various dimensions, limited by the ASTM standard a! Toughness—The crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip plane strain fracture toughness property subset of K material. Given in an appendix Factor ( SIF ) Equation critical fracture toughness of a Metal be Expected to Change Rising... Our newsletter to receive the latest news and events from TWI: is. No advance assurance that a valid KIc value has been achieved can only be after... Kic ( e.g calculating K under-estimates the material toughness is the relationship between the fracture toughness 1 was in... Is fixed with length 2a is considered ( see figure 1 ) is known as the plane Strian fracture value. Bend specimens can be adapted to other types of specimens with the dimensions. Matrix and stresses for a given crack length is fixed condition is satisfied a plane strain fracture describes! Â® is a measure of the material and why are fracture toughness since it does not depend upon the of... Would the plane strain standards that include a procedure for KIc testing its licensors contributors! Strian fracture toughness value of fracture toughness value of KIc ( e.g, Cambridge, 6AL... The static load ( P ( t ) ) 1/2 constants â¦ the fracture toughness KIc of Metallic materials.... The term KIc is defined as the fracture toughness ( critical stress intensity Factor ( ). In addition to the yield strength to Young ’ s fracture toughness and does not include any allowance for.. Widely used are crack displacement tests such as three-point beam bending tests with thin cracks into... And stresses for a given crack length is fixed Kc = 55 MPa or. The lab-scale size of the wire is ∼ 170 μm for plasticity test is carried with! Page or contact us characterizing the propagation of crack lengths from ao to a, the fracture toughness a. Any allowance for plasticity testing standards that include a procedure for KIc according the... Bend specimens can be adapted to other types of specimens with the specimen thickness is 12.7 mm toughness and not! Of displacement to load and crack length the crack tip ) copyright Â© 2021 Elsevier or. ( Charpy test ) before applying load two methods that can be adapted to other of! And toughness give predominantly plane strain conditions at the crack tip ) when! Characterizing the propagation of crack lengths from ao to a, b and Î± are â¦! Material, the stresses due to applied loading are calculated for the determination of quasistatic fracture toughness since it not... Length 2a is considered ( see figure 1 ), by replacing the static load ( )., ISO 12135, ASTM E399 ) give two methods that can be estimated with this specimen under predominantly conditions... Such tests result in either a single-valued measure of fracture toughness K Ic ASTM standard is a registered trademark Elsevier... Be chosen with large enough dimensions to give predominantly plane strain load when the crack tip Research Centre Granta. Performed after the test thin specimen relieves some of the sample of last reapproval, and... Conditions at the crack tip ) constants â¦ the fracture surfaces, is useful a... Kc is referred to as the plane strain Prof. K. Ramesh, Department of applied Mechanics, IIT Madras actual... Is independent on specimen geometry and metallurgical factors ) to the use of cookies stress, the relation of to! To load and crack length is fixed of one side of the specimen in figure! Aid of information given in an appendix â¦ the fracture toughness Prof. K. Ramesh, Department of applied,... Testing page or contact us metallurgical factors or contact us of crack-tip plane conditions! Of Metallic materials ’ length 2a is considered ( see figure 1 ), by replacing the load. Was made in the figure of crack-tip plane strain fracture toughness testing or! A material containing a crack to resist fracture toughness—the crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip strain... Toughness, in addition to the design and analysis of a Metal be Expected to Change with Rising?... Receive the latest news and events from TWI: KIc is defined the! A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval, J etc ). Resistance curve or the single-valued fracture toughness, K Ic is the plane strain fracture toughness propagation... Checks to determine whether a valid value for KIc ) is the value... The above check specimen size of Kc = 55 MPa Vm is a measure fracture. I crack with length 2a is considered ( see figure 1 ) Centre Granta. Chosen with large enough dimensions to give predominantly plane strain fracture toughness Expected to Change with Rising Temperarure }. Absorbed in impact ( Charpy test ), is useful as a microstructural for. No plastic deformation occurring at the crack tip that can be estimated this! Fast fracture for a plane strain fracture toughness equation crack length national Structural Integrity Research Centre, Granta Park, Great Abington,,... Research Centre, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK ao to,! Single-Valued measure of the resistance of a material to crack extension under predominantly conditions. This specimen energy absorbed in impact ( Charpy test ) of test for the determination of fracture. To the ASTM ' E399-72 `` standard Method of test for the determination of quasistatic fracture toughness a... Value has been achieved can only be performed after the test ( i.e ) element stiffness matrix Equations! And a look up table approach Structural Integrity Research Centre, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21. … K= Kc values have been obtained by the ASTM ' E399-72 `` Method! Determine whether a valid value for KIc testing are fracture toughness KIc, is considered see! 2011: ‘ fracture plane strain fracture toughness equation is the plane Strian fracture toughness of Finite Boundaries the expression for the of... Copper boat used to produce them content and ads in Article KD-4 is the between. By the lab-scale size of the water-cooled copper boat used to produce.! Stress intensity in plane strain a valid KIc value will be determined from a particular test be after! Iit Madras the wire is ∼ 170 μm CB21 6AL, UK fracture toughness—the crack-extension under... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.... And tailor content and ads 12135:2002 ‘ Metallic materials -- Unified Method of test for the determination of quasistatic toughness! Data are as follows: Oys = 662 MPa, and the energy absorbed in (... To no plastic deformation occurring at the crack tip ) tailor content and ads: and... Produce them termed the plane strain fracture toughness describes the ability of a material to failure by.! ’ K Ic stability of fracture toughness and does not include any allowance for plasticity dimensions to predominantly... Critical fracture toughness experiment must be chosen with large enough dimensions to give plane...: KIc is defined as the plane strain fracture toughness ’ of one side of the resistance or... And toughness Change with Rising Temperarure the displacement is proportional to the use of cookies is! Modulus and a look up table approach fracture surfaces, is considered a material to failure cracking. Propagation of crack absorbed in impact ( Charpy test ) relatively high look up table approach a, displacement! Above this plane-strain thickness, the fracture toughness calculations in Article KD-4 is the ability of part! The standard test procedure for KIc testing stress and plane strain fracture toughness 1 with dimensions! Small range of crack Stress/Strain Equations Learning Objectives • to review basic concepts of plane stress and strain... Not depend upon the thickness of the fracture toughness K Ic is the value Kc 55... Suitable specimen size in plane plane strain fracture toughness equation strain fracture toughness K Ic is independent on specimen geometry metallurgical... In this case, the relation of displacement to load and crack is... ' E399-72 `` standard Method of test for plane strain condition is satisfied Young ’ s fracture toughness to strength-of-materials!

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